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Chrám královny Hatšepsut

26. listopad 2013

Navštívíte-li Egypt, pak si jistě vyberete z bohaté nabídky výletů. Kromě Údolí králů, Luxorského chrámu a Karnaku, byste měli vidět i tajemný chrám královny Hatšepsut.

Chrám královny Hatšepsut. Zdroj: WikiChrám královny Hatšepsut. Zdroj: Wiki

Zádušní chrám královny Hatšepsut neboli Dér al-Bahrí patří mezi turisty frekventovaná místa. V překladu jde o „svatý klášter“, o kterém si staří Egypťané mysleli, že jde o takzvaný práh mezi pozemským a posmrtným životem.

Místo posledního odpočinku oblíbené vladařky

Právě na tomto antickém pohřebišti, které se nachází severně od města Théby, nalezli archeologové mnoho skalních hrobek, ale také impozantní zádušní chrámy faraónů Mentuhotepa a Thutmosise III. a královny Hatšepsut. Je to překrásná terasovitá třístupňová stavba, která je umístěna na úpatí obrovského skalního masívu. Pochází z období 18. dynastie. Všechny tyto terasy byly barevně bohatě vyzdobeny motivy ze života a vlády královny Hatšepstut.

Kdo byla Hatšepsut?

Výstavba chrámu se datuje kolem roku 1470 před naším letopočtem. Z architektonického hlediska jde o jednu z nejzajímavějších sakrálních staveb z celého Egypta. Kdo vlastně byla slavná Hatšepsut? Patrně se jednalo o výjimečnou ženu. Překlad jejího jména znamená „první dáma všech dam“. Jejím otcem byl Thutmos I. a matka Ahmos. Traduje se, že se provdala za svého nevlastního bratra Thutmose II. Po smrti jeho otce se stala ženou krále a získala titul královny.

Královna si získala velkou oblibu mezi lidmi. Když Thutmose II. zemřel, měl převzít vládu její nevlastní syn Thutmose III., byl ovšem příliš mladý, tak se vlády ujala Hatšepsut. Časem se nechala prohlásit za plnohodnotnou vládkyni Egypta, jemuž panovala společně s nevlastním synem.

Výstavba chrámu

Královna brzy začala plánovat výstavbu patrně nejpozoruhodnějšího chrámu v Egyptě. Stavbu započala asi sedmým rokem jejího panování a dokončena byla zhruba po 15 letech.

Jak se dostat k chrámu královny Hatšepsut

V případě, že nepojedete na organizovaný výlet s cestovní kanceláří, využijte služeb místních taxikářů. Pokud pojedete autobusem nebo autem, musíte počítat s tím, že zastavíte několik set metrů před samotným chrámem a dále už půjdete pěšky. Do bezprostřední blízkosti chrámu vás dovezou místní vláčky. Ovšem nejvíce si toto krásné místo vychutnáte, když si dopřejete procházku.

Bohužel 17. listopadu roku 1997 zde došlo k teroristickému útoku, kdy zde islámští teroristé postříleli 58 turistů převážně ze Švýcarska. Dnes je tedy chrám velmi pečlivě střežen vojenskými hlídkami a bezpečnostními kamerami.

Navštivte tuto neobyčejnou stavbu, která vás vtáhne do dávné minulosti. Jakoby zde Hatšepsut znovu ožila. Chrám je ve výborném stavu a turistům nabízí jedinečnou podívanou. V blízkém sousedství chrámu se nachází chrám faraona Mentuhotepa.

 

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Autor: Martina

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Čtěte také...

Co uvidíte v Údolí Králů?

Nedaleko Luxoru leží vyprahlá oblast, která na první pohled není ničím zajímavá. Skrývá však obrovské historické poklady, které vypovídají mnohé o historii Egypta. Jedná se o obrovské pohřebiště, tedy místo posledního odpočinku významných egyptských panovníků, faraonů a králů.